Joining a workers’ compensation group self-insurance program may be a significant means for small and mid-sized employers to reduce operating costs. Such plans deliver savings by providing employers with considerable control over losses, medical care and rehabilitation, plus improving cash flow.
While some companies self-insure workers’ compensation programs individually, these are usually best suited for larger corporations with immense assets. For smaller and medium-sized businesses, a Group Self-Insurance (GSI) workers’ compensation plan is more suitable. A GSI is a non-profit association of employers formed for the specific purpose of providing workers’ compensation coverage. A GSI enables employers to assume a major portion of their risk and provides group purchasing power for excess insurance to cover individual losses or in the aggregate in excess of a specified amount.
Workers’ compensation is well suited for self-insurance plans because claims are typically of low severity but high frequency, which allows losses to be predicted with some accuracy. Further, payment for large claims can be spread over several years, which benefits a company’s cash flow. GSI programs enable companies to better manage safety programs and have more direct involvement in seeing that employees receive prompt medical care when injured, and employers are able to exercise closer monitoring of the return of the employee to work.
Requirements for joining or forming a GSI vary considerably from state to state. Some states do not allow GSIs and in other states, companies must meet certain solvency standards and provide financial and loss data to be considered. Also, if a company has operations in more than one state, GSIs must be setup in each state. A GSI in one state will not cover losses in another state.
Besides improved cash flow, the major benefits that come from joining or creating a GSI are enhanced loss experience through more effective loss prevention, loss control and managed care programs; reduced administrative costs, and interest income earned on premiums. GSIs in most states do not have to pay premium taxes and or be assessed for residual workers’ compensation market losses.
Members of a GSI pay a premium to the group based on their exposures, classification codes, payroll, experience modifications, and rates developed by a state’s workers’ compensation rate making bureau. At the end of the contract year, any surpluses from both the claims fund and the administrative expense fund can be returned as dividends to group members.
GSIs handle claims following guidelines of the state workers’ compensation laws. Often, third-party administrators handle loss prevention and control, case management, accounting, investment and actuarial services.
An agent can provide guidance to employers wanting to explore joining a GSI. An interested company should first seek management commitment as joining a GSI requires careful attention to the entire workers’ compensation program rather than shifting these responsibilities and duties to a private insurer. Also, an employer has to be willing to disclose detailed information regarding its finances, support systems and ongoing risks.
While GSIs offer important advantages, there are some disadvantages. Members of the group are usually jointly and severally liable for losses incurred by the entire membership. A bankruptcy or dissolution of a member does not release the remaining members from liability. If the GSI’s retention and excess insurance are exhausted by a catastrophic event, the group members must contribute their pro rata share of the total loss. And, if a GSI has a pattern of liberal underwriting for new members, it’s possible it will have financial deficiencies in the future.
If an employer understands the additional risks it assumes as well as the added reporting and administrative duties when it joins a GSI program, the end result could be a significant reduction in overall costs for workers’ compensation.